The defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in May 2009 brought Sri Lanka's 26 year long civil war to an end. It also led to a dramatic change in power relations in the island, where politics and everyday life had for decades been dominated by the conflict between the government forces and the Tamil rebels. Throughout Sri Lanka’s modern history, the nationalist projects of the two main conflict parties have dominated the struggles for – and the analysis of – power. This publication highlights other important aspects of power, while also relating them to the armed conflict. The four chapters make an in-depth investigation of power relations historically as well as in contemporary Sri Lanka. They analyse the interlinkages between power dynamics at the global, national and local level (Orjuela), the power struggles involved in processes of political reform (Uyangoda), the ways in which power in Sri Lankan society is gendered (Kottegoda), and the intersection of politics and the market economy (Bastian). This multi-dimensional power analysis is essential to understand Sri Lanka’s efforts towards post-war reconstruction, and the ways in which outside interventions into conflict resolution and development become part of and transform various power struggles. Although the context in which power is maintained and resisted is in some ways radically new in post-war Sri Lanka, we also see that much of the uneven power relations, as well as the attempts to challenge them, remain and will continue to shape politics and life in Sri Lanka in the future.